TMA USB Chargers, voltages, compatability

So I was trying to figure out what usb adaptors and wires go with which speakers, phones, tablets, etc. Between old shit and new shit and apple, there’s at least 3 small connectors, plus some wires have plugs attached and others are designed to plus full size USB end into a generic wall plus adaptor.

First question is, does it matter if a usb wall adaptor is apple or non-apple or if its bigger or different shape? I don’t need to worry about finding one lying around that isn’t a typical cube and trying it out?

Also, I have a couple of wires with a fatter I guess capacitor inside the wire? Is that designed to somehow draw more power to charge a specific type of device, and would its presence harm a device that wasn’t designed to need it?

And it seems like tablets have different voltage requirements such that you cant just try any adaptor and hope it will work in yours, but how different are they and will they just not work if wrong or will they kill your device?

Basically, OP needs a basic electrical/eletronics lesson for dummies.

Anyone?

IN for more info